Friday, June 28, 2013

1938 Phantom Corsair

Young Rust Heinz, heir to the Heinz 57 Varieties fortune, dreamt of becoming a car stylist. He definitely did not want to be what his family had in mind: an executive bottler of ketchup and pickles.

Rust dropped out of Yale in 1934 and announced to his father that he was moving to California to open an industrial design firm. His dad wasn’t happy, but a sympathetic aunt in Pasadena took him in. She doted on him, called him Rusty and didn’t pooh-pooh his passion for automobiles. She also noted that Rusty was bright, creative and likable.

In 1936, at age 22, Rust Heinz bought himself a brand-new Cord 810 sedan. After driving the Cord for a while, Rusty made a sketch of the car of his dreams and decided to have Pasadena coachbuilder Bohman & Schwartz build it. Maurice Schwartz himself agreed to hammer out the aluminum body panels. And Heinz’s 1936 Cord would provide the new car’s powertrain: the 125-bhp Lycoming V8, 4-speed pre-selector gearbox and front-wheel drive, all neatly packaged on a self-contained subframe.
The sketches Heinz brought to Bohman & Schwartz amazed both coachbuilders. The drawings showed a long, sleek fastback coupe, and what impressed Maurice Schwartz was that the body shape had no design precedent. Unlike so many car stylists, Rust Heinz hadn’t copied any previous design. He’d come up with a totally original body shape. His radical coupe had an envelope body with uninterrupted “through” fenders, four fully skirted wheels, no discernible grille, no ornamentation, no chrome, no debossed speed streaks, not even door handles. The design was all of a piece, and the form, in fact, was the design; very unusual for that day of fussy art deco and faux streamlining. Heinz decided to call his creation the Phantom Corsair.

The Phantom Corsair had no design precedent. Its shape was totally original and highly advanced, with “through” fenders and skirts over all four wheels.
In May 1937, Rust Heinz married Helen Clay Goodloe in what the Pasadena Star-News described as the social event of the season. The Heinz family in Pittsburgh approved of the bride and thought marriage might help Rusty settle down a bit. It didn’t.

Rust Heinz made the Phantom Corsair the showcase of his budding design operation—a rolling advertisement, so to speak. He also toyed with the idea of having Bohman & Schwartz produce copies of the Phantom Corsair in the future so he could offer them to the public. He created a beautiful brochure and priced the replica Corsairs at $14,700, this at a time when a Packard Six cost $888.

Chris Bohman remembered that, “Rust…kept sketching these cars. One in particular he wanted to build. His family wouldn’t finance it, so his aunt here in Pasadena did. The family hoped he might settle down and get the car out of his system. He’d married Helen Goodloe, and I knew her because I went to school with her sister.” Maurice Schwartz made a wooden scale model of the Phantom Corsair to prove out the shape to himself. Satisfied, he carefully detached the Cord’s semi-unitized body from the cowl rearward and sold that portion of the car to a Hollywood movie studio to use as a prop. The Cord’s front subframe then became the basis for Heinz’s new creation.

Bohman & Schwartz had the A.J. Bayer Co. in Vernon, Calif., fabricate a special chassis to weld to the Cord’s front subframe. The Bayer chassis was made from rectangular chrome-moly steel tubing, the main section consisting of two parallel side rails with a central X-member. The Cord’s stock rear axle was suspended on a custom rear subframe that Bayer bolted to the tops of the main frame rails via steel plates.

Douglas Fairbanks Jr. and Paulette Goddard inspect the Phantom Corsair before launching their 1938 film, The Young In Heart. The car became the movie’s principal prop and, by special effects, one scene features a dealer showroom filled with Corsairs of various colors.
Driving the Corsair can be a bit of an adventure, because outward vision is limited, and it’s hard to judge front and rear overhangs.
Maurice Schwartz then made up the full-sized wooden hammer forms for the Corsair’s aluminum body. Heinz also asked Schwartz to fabricate a full bellypan to aid aerodynamics. The Corsair body, due to its extreme width, overhung the frame rails by a substantial margin, but intentionally so. The side-to-side overhang allowed the skirted front wheels to turn at fairly normal angles, and it also allowed four-abreast seating on the front bench. The fourth passenger sat to the driver’s left.

The Corsair was built specifically to impress potential buyers and design clients, and to that end Heinz added all the technology he could think of. Both of the Corsair’s huge doors opened with electric pushbuttons instead of conventional handles. Simultaneously, little roof flaps flipped up over the doors to ease entry and exit. The massive hood opened and shut with electro-hydraulic rams. The cockpit was entirely lined with a layer of rubber over cork sheeting. The cork was 1.5 inches thick in places. The rear cabin walls had built-in cabinets containing spun aluminum tumblers and a crystal decanter. Two small passengers could sit in the rear, facing each other.

The headlamps were integral “cats-eye” Woodlites, and the bumpers stood on telescoping rams. The instrument panel used the full complement of 1936 Cord gauges plus half a dozen more, including an altimeter, compass and battery-charge indicator. A console above the windshield carried telltales for door ajar, headlights on and radio on. Heinz had plans to install a shortwave radio and thermostatically controlled air conditioning but never got around to it.

To publicize the Phantom Corsair nationally, Rust wrangled a part for it in the 1938 film The Young in Heart, starring Douglas Fairbanks Jr. and Paulette Goddard. In the movie, the Corsair was known as the Flying Wombat. Seeking more publicity, Rust Heinz displayed the Phantom Corsair at the 1939 New York Worlds Fair.

During a visit to his family in Pittsburgh, Heinz decided to go to a dance with friends. On the way home in an open Buick, the driver’s hat flew off. To retrieve it, the Buick driver made a U-turn and was immediately hit broadside by a passing car. Rust Heinz died the next morning, July 23, 1939, of complications due to a skull fracture. He was 25 years old.

The Phantom Corsair stood gathering dust in a Queens warehouse until 1942. That’s when the family gave to it Lou Maxon, head of the Heinz ad agency. The car subsequently passed through several hands and was owned briefly in 1947 by Joe and Andy Granatelli in Chicago. In 1951, Hoosier comedian Herb Shriner bought the car and had Albrecht Goertz (of BMW 507 and Datsun 240-Z fame) revamp the grille so the engine cooled better. In 1971, Harrah’s Automobile Collection bought the Phantom Corsair and restored it back to its original, pristine 1937 configuration. The car is currently on permanent display at the National Automobile Museum (The Harrah Collection) in Reno, Nevada.

phantomcorsair-5 phantomcorsair-6 phantomcorsair-7
The Corsair seats four abreast in front and has two children’s seats in back. Gauges are from designer Rust Heinz’s 1936 Cord, augmented with an altimeter, compass and other dials. The Cord also lent the Corsair its front subframe, including the Lycoming V8 and front-wheel-drive transaxle.

Source: DeansGarage

1966 Oldsmobile Tornado

Dick Ruzzin’s Personal account of the development of the ’66 Tornado
Artwork by Dick Ruzzin
I was new and experiencing my first design program of note. It was all like magic, as sketches, words and imagination all converged on the project and influenced what was going on in the studio.
I clearly remember my participation and that of others in the room which follows. I was really impressed with the management as they discussed the abstract future of the design, even though it was incomplete. They apparently trusted that it could be developed into a solution for a project that we designers had no knowledge of.

The Name: Toronado

The name came from Chevrolet, used on a show car. It was originated by a designer in Chevrolet. Studio #1, Ira Gilford. He had a conversation with his father and uncle and developed the name which was then used on a Chevrolet show car. The roots of the made up name are, TORO (Bull), and NADO(Tornado). Oldsmobile asked for the name and Chevrolet gave it to them. Everyone thought it was a great name.

The E-car Program

The Toronado was one of a series of three cars that also included the Buick Riviera and the Cadillac Eldorado. The chassis was engineered to be capable of both front drive for the Toronado and Eldorado and rear drive for the Riviera. There was a balance of both interchangeable parts and specific parts for the individual cars.

The windshield, A-pillar and door side glass was shared by all three cars.The roof panel and backlight were shared by Toronado and Riviera. Door inners were shared by all three as well as various underbody panels. Each car’s individual sheet metal pieces allowed the unique appearance achieved byall three. The only piece that you could really see as common was the windshield pillar.
1966 Tornado and Riveria in Body Development Studio.
Ferrari Influence

To clearly define and communicate its vision of the future unnamed E-Car, John Beltz, Chief Engineer of Oldsmobile bought a dark red Ferrari. This tight four passenger close coupled coupe was seen also by the Oldsmobile Studio as a personal car size that was appropriate for the future product that would be called Toronado. This size would have dictated a smaller platform for the car. The spread of size between the needs of the three ultimately dictated a larger size.

Advanced Design #3

We were asked to send all of our primary sketches and board drawings to Advanced #3 to start the program as we could not do it because of other pressing work. Chuck Jordan also wanted to register the design in comparison to the coming Riviera and Eldorado that were not as far along. I assume he wanted to see a firm direction for all three.

We started a clay model to match the Ferrari 330 GT 2+2, maybe on the then current Camaro / Firebird platform.

Later when it came back as an incomplete full-size clay model we made massive changes to the clay buck to match the new E car platform and started in earnest to complete the design for production. There was a lot of work to do.
Ferrari 330 GT 2+2
Evolution of the Design

The greatest design credit should be given to Don Logerquist, the designer who originated the theme that the red rendering and the cars design was developed from. The sketch was made during our efforts to develop an alternate design for the 1965 Oldsmobile B car that was underway as a full sized clay model. Chuck Jordan was excited about the design that was being put on the alternate side of the B clay and he brought Irv Rybicki in for an opinion as he had been Chief of Olds before Stan Wilen. He called it a design that could be used in the near future on a “special car” for Oldsmobile. Shortly after that the red rendering was started, worked on by Dave North, Don Logerquist and Stan as advisor. Dave did most of the layout and rendering and Don helped develope the look of the surfaces.
1966 Toronado
I saw Irv use this technique later when I was Chief of Chevrolet #2, he started watching for design solutions as soon as he knew a new program was coming, even before anyone else knew it.

It is true that Dave North did the rendering with some of Don’s help. Stan was the one who inspired the front end, a thin long slot like the Firebird 3 and I eventually did the rear, a derivative of the Ferrari GT Kamm inspired race car called the Bread Van, tailpipes and all. Stan helped with the tailamps, coordinating them with the front grill, asking me to keep them low, above the bumper and as wide as possible. A simple harmonic solution It was and had to be in sharp contrast to the rear designs on the Riviera and Eldorado.
Toronado Rendering
If you look at the red rendering compared to the final car you will see that it is very different. The major design element, the two large wheel flares, are not seen on the red rendering. They emerged after Bill Mitchell eliminated the top line on the rear quarter and connected the rear corner of the Kamm inspired rear end to the outboard roof crease that had to match the Riviera roof panel. The rear wheel lip flare was naturally very large as it had to reach further to meet the quarter surface, much further than the front wheel lip flare. This problem resulted in the change of the entire body side section, upon close examination you will see that the two flares are at a different angle, this was done to make them look the same.
Detroit Auto Show. WhooHoo! Some outfits!
The final lower bodyside was an attempt to create a “frame” look which Bill Mitchell was enthralled with at the time (See the 1964 Pontiac Tempest / GTO). It worked very well to give the car the look of a low center of gravity. and a line to connect the two wheel shapes. This was a contribution by Stan who watched and balanced the design as it went.

Bill Mitchill changed the design from the red rendering after the clay model came back to Oldsmobile Studio from Advanced Design #3. He connected the line on the roof to the tail end of the car to create a side plane carrying the large wheel oriented shapes, front and rear. This was a brilliant move that took the design to another level making it more unique than ever. It also helped connect the quarter line on the Toronado to the roof panel that we had to share with the Riviera, although this made the execution of that part of the car more difficult for us.
1966 Olds Toronado Brochure
Advanced Design #3 Studio
We were asked to send all of our primary sketches, scale models and board drawings to Advanced #3 Studio to start the program, as we could not do it because of other pressing facelift work on existing models. Chuck Jordan also wanted to register the design in comparison to the coming Riviera and Eldorado that were not as far along.

When it came back as an incomplete full-size clay model we started in earnest to complete the design for production. There was a lot of work to do, the front and rear were not up to the side view theme as the design was being led by the red rendering with the fender peak going from the baqck of the car into the sail panel. Bill Mitchell changed it and then the rear could be done in its finalized form.
—Dick Ruzzin, Junior Creative Designer in Oldsmobile Studio
Chicago Auto Show

Bill Porter sent me message when he found out that I was writing a memoir of the Toronado a couple of years ago.

It was about a project he was working on in the Advanced area in the early 1960's. Specifically, a scale model done by Les Johnson that had a low body line that went rearward fro m the front wheel opening, hopping over the skirted rear wheel and then becoming horizontal again and going on to the rear of the car. There was a large flare into the quarter at the top of the hopping line. Les asked Bill to make a sketch of it for him, which he did. Bill Mitchell came in and responded to it.

I think that there is no doubt that they had created a theme that was the result of similar needs to ours in the Oldsmobile Studio years later as the Toronado was developed. Stan was the author of the low line that went over the wheel openings. He did this to impart a focus on the wheels as a theme to become foundational for Oldsmobile. The Toronado theme was a much larger statement that when conceived as shown on the red rendering did not have large flares, they evolved during the three dimensional surface development. I do recall that Don’s gray and yellow pastel sketch did have them.
At the time the Toronado was designed there was a great deal of enthusiasm, generated by Bill Mitchell for wheel oriented design solutions. A large, volume of work was being done in the Design building around this theme and outside there were a large number of themes that were being used on race cars around the world. The combination of elements that made up the Toronado design were completely originated and assembled in Oldsmobile Studio under Stan Wilen.

The enthusiasm generated for the design was a result of its unique individual elements and its design solution in total that was very fresh. There is no doubt that there may have been some design elements that through previous years were similar to the final solution in some ways. Neither myself, Frank Munoz, Dave North or Stan Wilen ever discussed any work that had been done elsewhere in the building in referance to the developing Toronado design.

I did see in Chuck Jordan’s office once a small idealistic theme model in silver that had a clean monocoque side with wheel portrusions, but not the same theme that we developed in Oldsmobile Studio, it was simpler.

GM Design was a design generating machine. You could say that everything had an effect on everything else.

—Dick Ruzzin

Source: deansgarage

Thursday, June 27, 2013